Sabtu, 26 September 2009






I.1. Direct Method

This method also called natural method, it was established in Germany, frame around 1900, and are best represented by the methods devised by Berlitz and Sauze. this method become very popular during the first quarted of 20\th century., especially in private language schools in Europe where highly motivated students could study new languages and not need to travel far in order to try them out and apply them communicatively. one of the famous advocated of the direct method was the American Charlez Berlitz, whose school and Berlitz method are now world-renowned.

This method was the out come of are action against the grammar translation method. It was based on the assumption that the leaner of a foreign language should think directly in the target language and refrains from using the learners’ native language, just use the target language and operates on the idea that second learning must be an imitation of first language learning as this is the natural way humans learn any language a child never relies on another language to learn its first language, and thus the mother tongue is not necessary to learn a foreign language the direct method places great stress on correct pronunciation and the target language from out set. it advocates teaching of oral skills at the expense of every traditional aim of language teaching.

According to this method, printed language and text must be kept away from second language learner for as long as possible, just as a first language leaner does not use printed word until he has good grasp of speech. Learning of writing and spelling should be delayed until after the printed word has been introduced, and grammar, translation should be avoided because this would involve the application of the learner’s first language. All above items must be avoided because they hinder the acquisition of a good oral proficiency.

I.2. Communicative Approach

The communicative approach was developed by Robert Langs MD, in the early 1970’s it is a new theory or paradigm of emotional life and psychoanalysis that is centered on human adaptations to emotionally-charged events-with full appreciation that such adaptations take place both within awareness and out side of awareness. the approach gives full credence to the unconscious side of emotional life and has rendered it highly sensible and incontrovertible by discovering a new, validated, and deeply meaningful way of decoding unconscious messages.

The main purpose of foreign language teaching is to communicate with language. Meanwhile, communicative approach is the effective way to achieve this goal. Through out more that twenty years, this method has been confirmed and spread widely. Communicate approach is the innovation of the foreign language teaching not only does it improve students’ communicative competence effectively, but also carries out the quality education in languages. The communicative approach emphasizes that the ability to use language appropriately is another essential aspect of communicative competence the principle applied here is that grammatical competence and lexical know ledge are not enough to enable students to operate efficiently in target language.

in the intervening years, the communicative app[roach has been adapted to the elementary, middle, secondary, and post secondary levels. known under a variety of names, including national-functional, teaching for proficiency based instruction and communicative language teaching




II.1. Theory of Learning

· Direct Method

ü Inductive learning is essential. There is direct relation between form and meaning.

ü Second learning is similar to first language acquisition there is a direct exposure to the target language exposure of long chunks in he target language.

ü Learning process is full variety and is never wearisome. The language is the living speech. Listening speaking and reading is valid rather than writing.

ü learning occurs naturally

ü Learning of writing and spelling should be delayed until after the printed word has been introduced.

ü Learning of grammar and translation skills should be avoided because they involve the application of the mother tongue

· Communicative Approach

ü Learning is a process of creating construction and involves trial and error.

ü Activities that involve real communication promote learning

ü Language that is meaning-full to the leaner supports the learning process

II.2. Theory of Language

· Direct Method

ü Language is for oral use, knowing a language was being able to speak there is a direct relation between form and meaning

ü No other language should interfere when learning a language

ü Language is primarily spoken, not written. there fore student study common, everyday speech in the target language

ü Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar, since there is no permission for translation, vocabulary teaching takes a lot of time.

ü Grammar is also tough through question and answer activities about the passages.

· Communicative Approach

ü Language is for communication

ü The goal of language teaching of develop “communicative competence”

ü Using the language appropriately in social contexts is important and should be acquired

ü Language according to the communicative approach

- language is a system for expression of meaning

- the primary function of language is for instruction and communication

- the structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses

- the primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse

II.3. Objective or Goal

· Direct Method

ü teaching student how to communication in the target language

ü teaching of thinking in the target language

ü teacher are to create such a classroom atmosphere to make student ready to understand and talk about the dialogues or the passages

ü Teacher are also expected to use actions and pictures related to the teaching matters in the dialogues.

· Communicative Approach

ü To make students communicatively competent, able to use language appropriate for a given social context; to the teaching matters in the dialogues.

II.4. Activity Types

· Direct Method

ü rending aloud :

- The student read aloud about the passage

- The teacher uses gestures, pictures, realia, or other means to help student understand the meaning

ü Question and answer exercise

- The student ask question about the map using target language

- The teacher answer the students question by drawing on the blackboard or giving examples

ü Conversation practice

- The teacher asks individual students of question in the target language

- The students have to understand to be able to answer correctly

ü Fill in the blank exercise

- The teacher asks to the students to fill in blanks

- The students fill in blank with prepositions practiced in the lesson.

ü Dictation

- The teacher reads the passage three times and the cast time he again reads a normal speed

- The students write down what they heard, and the check their work

ü Map drawing

- The student were given a map with the geographical features unnamed

- The teacher gave instructions for finding and labeling one geographical feature

ü Paragraph writing

- The teacher asked to write a paragraph in the student..### Words

- The student could have done this from memory or they could have used the reading passage in the lesson as a model

· Communicative Approach

ü Authentic materials

- The teacher give the a copy of a genuine news paper article and tell the student to underline the reporter’s predictions

- The student try to state the reporter’s predictions in different word

ü Scrambled sentences

- The teacher gives a text in which the sentences are in a scrambled order. This is type of exercise about the cohesion and coherences properties of language

- The student unscramble the sentences so that the sentence are restored to their original order

ü Language game

- The teacher divides the students in small group and gives them an opportunity to express their ideas and opinions

- The students find them enjoyable, and if they are properly designed, they give students valuable communicative practice

ü Picture strip story

- The teacher gives each group of students a strip story and a task to perform

- The students work with a partner to predict what the next picture in the strip story will look like

ü Role-play

- The teacher tells the students who they are, what the situation is. And what they are talking about

- The students are to do a role-play. They imagine as what the teacher tell.

II.5. Learner and Teacher Role

· Direct Method

ü Learner Role

- Learners are active participants

- Learners have to take a part in the classroom activities and to be good listeners first.

- Learner are filled with various desires which they express in speech realize their role. They are always to revise what has been taught.

ü Teacher Role

- The teacher usually directs the interaction but they are not as dominant as in GTM. Some times acts like a partner of the student

- The teacher are to undertake a great effort since they are not allowed to talk mother tongue. They are to find meaningful teaching materials to study along with the texts in the book

- The teacher try to make the student understand the general rules and structures through the stretches of the target language studied in classroom.

· Communicative Approach

ü Learner Role

- Learners are communicators

- Learners are engaged in negotiating meaning actively

- Learners are responsible managers of their own learning (larsen Freeman,1986)

ü Teacher Role

- The teacher is a facilitator of his/ her student learning.

- The teacher is a manager of classroom activities.

- The teacher acts as an advisor and monitors student performance.

- The teacher’s role is primarily to facilitate communication and only secondarily to correct errors.

II.6. The Role of Instructional Materials

· Direct Method

There are there kind of materials. They can be used as the basis for classroom activities.

ü Reading passage materials which can use in the classroom activities for topics.

ü Dialogues or conversation practice between teacher and student for situation in learning-teaching process in the classroom.

ü Plays for situation in learning-teaching process are used.

· Communicative Approach

ü Authentic material: articles from magazines or newspapers, short story which are used by native speakers in real life are used as class materials.

ü Communicative activities (information gap, opinion gap activities) are used promote students’ communication in classes.

ü Picture, and other visual aids and realia are very important to support meaning.

ü Task based activities are also used to promote student involvement in class.

II.7. Native and Target Language

· Direct Method

ü The student native language should not be used in the classroom

ü The students use the target language in the classroom

· Communicative Approach

ü Student native language has no particular role in this method

ü Target language should be used not only during activities but also when the teacher is giving explanation, instruction and homework

ü Target language is as tool for communication, not a subject to study




Direct method

Communicative approach

1. The teacher acts like partner of student.

2. Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar.

3. Learning occurs naturally.

4. In student feeling, there are no principles which relate to this area.

5. This method tries to establish a direct link between the target language and learning.

6. The most important skill is listening.

7. The syllabus in this method is basedon situation.

8. The student error is the student lets to self-correct whatever possible.

9. Learners are active participants.

10. Grammar is taught inductively.

1. The teacher is a facilitator of the student.

2. Language function are emphasized over forms.

3. Learning is process of creative construction and involves trial and error.

4. In student feeling, student will be more motivated to study a foreign language.

5. This method stands out with its emphasis not only on unguis tic forms and meaning but also on functions.

6. The most important skill is speaking.

7. Syllabus usually (but not always) functional-functional syllabus are used.

8. Student errors are seen as natural outcome the development of communication skill.

9. Learners are communicator.

10. Grammar is taught explicitly.

III. 2. Similarities between Direct Method and Communicative Approach

ü The aim of each method is teaching language for communication

ü Each method using target language in the classroom activities

ü Language viewed of each method is primarily spoken or for communication

ü In student-student interaction each method is interact a great deal with one another

ü The teacher in each method may ask the student in written skill.

ü There is reading section for the first class presented of each method.

ü Each method work on four skill (reading, writing, speaking listening)

ü The culture viewed of each method is the daily lives of people.

ü In evaluation accomplished of each method using oral or communicative test.

ü In students’ native language of each method is not used in the classroom activities.






  1. Less playing attention to writing, reading, and comprehension
  2. No based on a scientific method
  3. Conveying meaning with no translation at all to the first language were major problem.
  4. Prevention of mis understanding without any reference at all to the first language
  5. Applying the direct method beyond the elementary levels
  6. Second language should se learned in way which first language was acqulced, but obviously far less time
  7. Effectiveness of these verbalizing skills depends an maturation level of the child or type of environment on intelligence
  8. First language learning process really applicable to second foreign language learning at later stage
  9. The student’s dissatisfaction in the long run causes and invalidates the classroom situation
  10. Vocabulary teaching takes a lot of time

  1. Paying attention to speaking interaction between teacher and students
  2. It is a natural method, it teaches the foreign language in the same way as one learns one s mother tongue
  3. No gap between active and passive vocabulary
  4. This method is based on sound principles of education
  5. This method shifts the focus in early instruction from the literary language to the spoken language
  6. The direct method abandoned first language as the frame of reface for second language
  7. The teachers do not spend a great deal of time explaining grammar, setting up complicated exercises and managing paper flow.
  8. Teacher this developed new non – translational techniques.
  9. This gave rise to the focus an a text book, to illustrating meanings through objects and answers, to using spoken narratives

  1. The ultimate aim is developing the ability to think in the target language




The Primary goal of direct method and communicative approach is how to use a foreign language to communicate. The direct method and communicative approach are similar in that they all aim at teaching language for communication. How ever, each of method has its own way to achieve its goal. while the direct method tries to establish a direct link between the target language and meaning by immersing students in rich sample of the structural and lexical items being taught and the communicative approach stands out with its emphasis not only on linguistic forms and meaning but also on factions. Before the communicate language method appear, the previous method is direct method which is the out come of a reaction against the previous method. Although, all the methods described so far are symbolic of the progress foreign language teaching ideology underwent in the last century. these were methods that came and went, influenced or gave birth to new methods–in a cycle that could only be described as competition between rival methods or passing fads in the methodological theory underlying foreign language teaching. finally, by the mid-eighties or so, the industry was maturing in its growth and moving towards the concept of broad “ approach “ to language teaching that encompassed various method, motivations for learning English, types of teachers and the need of individual classroom and students themselves.



The academic and intellectual word may see the direct method as being quite unusual and non-traditional. However, direct method is who wanted to learn a foreign language without having to be too concerned about grammatical translation.

The communicative approach is only deemed successful if the teacher understands the student. The goal of this method is to have student speak the language fluently enough for notive speakers to understand what they are saying.

In the cause of its development, the direct method underwent certain changes of growth. the teacher followed the natural process by which a person learns its mother tongue, that is by imitation, repetition and direct association. Communicating teacher makes the students adopt not only the basic spoken principles of the language, but also the culture of it. In fact, language with the means of communication enables to merge with a foreign language culture by communication psychological abilities, adapting which makes an impact one’s mind listening to someone’s speech.

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