Sabtu, 26 September 2009

COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS (DIRECT METHOD AND SUGGESTOPEDIA)

COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS

(DIRECT METHOD AND SUGGESTOPEDIA)

1. INTRODUCTION

- Direct Method

Since GTM was not efficient again to give informal direction, Direct Method became popular. The Direct Method revived as a method when the goal of instruction became learning how to use a foreign language to communicate.

The basic rule of Direct Method is not translation is allowed during teaching learning process. This method is used in low level secondary school, the class has thirty students for one hour, three times a week.

- Suggetopedia

According to Georgi Lozanov believes that language learning can occur at a much faster rate than what ordinary transpires. The reason is that we setup psychological barriers to learning: we fear that we will be unable to perform that will limit our ability and make we fail. In order to make better use of our mental reserves we need “desuggested”. Suggestopedia, the application of the study of suggestion to pedagogy has been develop to help student eliminate their feeling in facing the barriers to learning.

This method is use for beginners in university. There are sixteen students in the class. The class meets for two hours, three morning a week.

2. COMPARISONS OF TWO METHODS

A) Theory of learning

- Direct Method

The theory of learning of Direct Method is not translation and native language. Student must associate the meaning in target language directly. Grammar is taught inductively, that is the students are presented with example and they figute out the rule or generalization from the example, students practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.

- Suggetopedia

In helping student eliminate their feeling about the barriers to learning the classes set up to make student comfortable to environment and relax, that is why in the class there are soft music, dim light, and arm chair in semi circle. There are some pictures on the wall that support into one topic that will be taught, and it changes few weeks based on the topic or theme. This class use target language and sometime native language is still used.

B) Theory of target language

- Direct Method

The using of target language is a must in Direct Method, no translation and native language that used. Students must think in the target language. The primary language is spoken not written. Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. The four skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening) occurs from the start oral communication is seen as a basic, pronunciation also became attention from the beginning of a course.

- Suggestopedia

Practicing target language is the purpose but in suggestopedia native language is still used to help student to understand the meaning in target language. Grammar is showed by putting poster on the walls which display information. The grammar is dealt with explicitly but minimally. In fact it is believed that student will learn best if their conscious attention is focused not on the language form, But on using the language. Speaking communication is emphasized student also read (dialog, text) and write (imaginative composition) in target language.

C) Goals

- Direct Method

Teachers who use direct method intend the student learn how to communicate in the target language, in order to this successfully, student should learn to think in the target language. During teaching learning process student just allowed to use target language by doing this teacher hopes that student can use target language communicatively.

- Suggestopedia

Teachers hope to accelerate the process by which students learn how to use foreign language for everyday communication. In order to do this the students mental powers must be tapped. This accomplished by desuggesting the psychological barriers learners bring with them to the learning the situation.

D) Activity Types

- Direct Method

· Reading A Loud

Each student get turns to read loudly after all teacher answering student’s question by using gestures, pictures, realia, examples to make the meaning clear.

· Question And Answer Exercise

Students are asked in target language by the teacher and answer it in complete sentences so they can practice new word and grammatical structures.

· Student Self-Correct

The teacher gives students alternative answer and asks them which one is the correct.

· Conversation Practice

The teacher gives some questions and the students should be able to answer correctly by using target language.

· Fill – In – The – Blank Exercise

Students are given a series of sentence with word missing in the target language.

· Map Drawing

The class is given a map of America, student is asked to state the name of place based on geographical feature that had given by the teacher.

· Paragraph Writing

Teacher asks student to write a paragraph based on their memory about America or they could use reading passage as a model.

- Suggestopedia

· Classroom Set Up

The teacher creates the class environment as a country where the target language is spoken by used dim light, arm chair, soft music, and some informational grammatical posters on the wall.

· Peripheral Learning

By putting grammatical posters on the wall student will absorb the necessary fact effortlessly about target language.

· Positive Suggestion

The responsibility of teacher is to orchestrate the suggestive factor in a learning situation, there by helping students break down the barriers to learning by direct or indirect suggestion.

· Visualization

Students are asked to close their eyes and to concentrate on their breathing, and open their eyes after teacher has described in a quiet voice.

· Role Play And Sing A Song

Teacher uses soft ball to ask student communicate each other and sing a song to introduce their new name and occupation in alphabetical.

E) Teacher And Student Rule

- Direct Method

Although the teachers direct the class activities the student role is less passive than GTM. The teacher and the student are more like partners in teaching learning process. The teacher asks directly by using target language and student do what the teacher ask.

- Suggestopedia

The teacher is the authority in the classroom. To make the method become successful student must trust and respect the teacher since they will be more responsive to her “desuggesting” their limitation and suggesting how easy it will be for them to succeed.

Once student trust the teacher they can undergo intantilization – adopting child like role. If they feel secure they can be more spontaneous less in habited.

F) The Role of Instructional Material

- Direct Method

Teacher begin the class activity by reading a loud that can make correction to the wrong pronunciation and answering student questions by using gestures, pictures, realia, example still in target language, grammar is taught by asked some questions and student must answer in complete sentence self correction and map drawing is used to give listening comprehension.

- Suggestopedia

The class is made comfortable to the environment by classroom set up to help student in facing barriers of learning. Peripheral learning helps student to know the information and grammatical by putting them on the walls, positive suggestion is given to support the student mental reserves. Visualization make the student feels in the place where the target language is spoken. Teacher gives each student new identity and occupation and asks them to introduce each others by using target language. Role play is used to make interaction from student and student.

G) The Role of Native And Target language

- Direct Method

In Direct Method there is not native language that use during teaching and learning process. Teacher and student use target language. No translation teacher ask student to think in target language directly. To make the meaning of something clear the teacher use realia, gestures, pantomime or draw it on the blackboard.

- Suggestopedia

In suggetopedia class native language is still used to help student understand more about target language, student may translate the meaning but the use of native is reduce from time to time till student master vocabulary in target language. Student errors are not corrected directly by the teacher she explains it later on the next lesson or on the last meeting by herself.

3. CORRELATION

In my opinion both of direct method and suggestopedia have many difference in the learning process, there for they still have correlation at least everything that the teacher do is to make student can be able to communicate in target language on their daily activity, to make this succeed student must think by using target language directly and student confidence is need to facing their barriers of learning that is why they need suggestion.

4. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

Similarities

Differences

Direct method

Suggestopedia

1. Both of them use target language

1. Native language

Doesn’t use it

Use it

2. Many vocabularies are taught

2. Translation

Not allowed

Allowed

3. Language primary is spoken

3. Classroom situation

Like normal class

Different by using soft music

4. The class meets three times a week

4. Genre of school

Lower level secondary school

The beginner class

At university

5. There is reading activity

5. The way of answering student question

Drawing

Realia

6. Pronunciation is given attention

6. Culture viewed

Using map

Virtualization

7. They use speaking communicatively in class

7. The technique

Using target language

Using target language and native

8. Teacher is more dominant in the class

8. Count of student

More than thirty

Just sixteen

9. Interaction among students is lead by the teacher

9. Grammar

Taught inductively

Explicit on the wall

10. The purpose of study is student to be able to communicate in target language

10. Teacher responds to students errors

Using self correction

Teacher uses the form correctly later during class

5. STRENGHT AND WEAKNESS

Method

Strength

Weaknesses

Direct Method

1. Drawing and giving example make student easy in understanding new vocabulary

2. Speaking communication very make student’s boredom lost

3. Student can pronounce well the vocabulary because the teacher teaches them

4. Self correction make student know their mistakes

5. Giving exercise can provide mental good learning

6. The using of map help student to know the geographical of the place where target language is spoken

7. Dictation is good to know the ability of student

8. Student is train to think in target language so them will learn fast

1. The class is depend on the teacher

2. Student no allowed to translate where as they still in lower level

3. The class situation is bored because there is no role play or song

4. Student can’t speak communicatively because the teacher guided and manage the student

5. Student interaction is limit by the teacher

6. The syllabus that used is based upon a situation

7. Explicit grammar never be given

8. There is not formal evaluation

9. Student must memorize much vocabularies

10. Not all of the student have bravery to ask to the teacher

Suggestopedia

1. Comfortable environment in classroom set up build mental power of student

2. The using of native language help student in solving target language problem

3. Good suggestion can make student believe to their ability and be confidence

4. The picture is changed regularly depend on the topic adding student knowledge

5. Soft music can bring their mind to the new environment

6. Role play make student have fun and enjoy the lesson

7. Student can feel the real condition of the place where the target language is spoken.

1. Little attention is given to grammar

2. Student must trust the teacher, if not they will get difficulties in forming a good environment

3. classroom set up not always possible to provide by the teacher

4. It is expensive because a teacher must change the poster on the wall every week

5. Teacher should proved de a relaxed and comfortable environment

6. CONCLUSION

- Direct Method

Direct Method is used when the GTM is not suitable again for student since the purpose is for communication. No translation is allowed student must think in target language so that the learning process will be faster. The teacher leads the class directly in target language. Drawing is used to range the meaning of something. Speaking communicatively is used between teacher – student and student – student.

- Suggestopedia

To make student succeed in learning student need desuggested to solve the barriers of learning. The class is arranged to make student relaxed and enjoyable by dim lighting, soft music, etc. speaking communicatively is used to make student brave and believe to their ability. Role play is used to make learning process easier.

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